* translated into English with an online translation service, the original text can be found here
Social identity as a set of certain properties and qualities of a person helps her feel like a part of a group. One of the key components of social identity is its value-volitional component, since social identity cannot exist without a clear self-determination of the system of values and beliefs. They appear during periods of identity crisis and are regarded as the basis for choosing a direction in life [Miklyaeva, Rumyantseva, 2017]. The most distinct social identity manifests itself in this form as attnodetest is one of the most historically stable social identity as a conscious representation of the person about its own national identity, in the form of knowledge, understanding, informed assessment of its membership in a particular national community, anchored in the sphere of emotions and feelings experienced by man as the representative of his people [Chotiner, 2000]. The fullness of the content of the system of cognitive and emotional components is a condition for the stability of the ethno-identity of the individual, ensuring its constructive, fruitful life in society [Gudzovskaya, 2015].
An empirical study of the structure of ethnic identity in adolescents revealed a ratio and interrelation of its cognitive and emotional components. It was found that 9-16 year olds are aware of their nationality as a factor determining their sense of belonging to a significant group. All teenagers are ready to increase the amount of time to learn as much as possible about their ethnic group, its history, traditions, customs; they have shown interest in the history and culture of their people; the desire to increase personal activity in social groups that include members of their own ethnic group, to communicate with other people in order to learn more about their ethnic group; to consciously observe the traditions of their ethnic group and to prefer their own nationality in a situation of choice.
The acquisition of knowledge about their national identity by adolescents leads to increased connections with the emotional component associated with national feelings and experiences. The more ethnic knowledge teenagers acquire, the more they want to learn about their people, their customs and culture. This, in turn, encourages changes in the attitude to one’s nationality, to increase awareness of its acceptance, and to strengthen and expand positive national feelings. For all students, the priority is a conscious belonging to an ethnic group, a cognitive component of ethnoidentity.
Revealed that younger and older students in General have the same attitude toward the following characteristics of the emotional component of EI: a feeling of resentment when you hear something offensive to his people; a deep sense of personal pride when sounded outstanding achievements of its people; the idea that national pride is a feeling that we need to educate from childhood; a sense of joy about belonging to their ethnic group; sense of connection to their ethnic group; sense of pride for his people; a sense of pride when the anthem of their country; a sense of pride when the flag of your country is raised; a sense of joy and excitement when folk music sounds.
Rank structure of ethnic identity of younger students are more differentiated than the older, which she is more continuous. For older students, the language is more important, for younger students-the significance of nationality. Expanding the information field on ethnic issues allows younger students to distinguish between national groups and think about relations between peoples as an important area that affects the life of each person. For high school students, feelings of belonging to their national group, attachment and love for the national territory, strengthening of such social feelings as national pride, national shame, etc. are significant.
The obtained data allow us to conclude that ethnic identity can be considered as a psychological characteristic of a person, a factor of personal development, including social giftedness of a person, one of the basic constructs of its self-consciousness. Ethnoidentity is characterized in General by completeness and constancy towards the end of adolescence, when the formed system of ideas about ethnos and ethnic phenomena allows teenagers to consciously and accurately identify themselves with a certain national group, to recognize and use in the practice of interaction a fairly large set of ethno-uniting and ethno-differentiating features.
- Gudzovskaya A.A. CHuvstvo «my» kak osnova vospitaniya grazhdanskoj identichnosti //Nauchnoe obozrenie: gumanitarnye issledovaniya. – 2015, №7 S.34-41.
- Miklyaeva A.V., Rumyanceva P.V. Teoriya social’noj identichnosti kak istochnik sovremennyh praktiko-orientirovannyh psihologicheskih issledovanij: zarubezhnyj opyt // ANI: pedagogika i psihologiya. 2017. T. 6. № 2 (19). S. 276-278.
- Hotinec V.YU. Etnicheskoe samosoznanie [Tekst] / V.YU. Hotinec. SPb.: Aleteya, 2000. 74 s.
* The research was carried out with the financial support of the RFBR in the framework of scientific project No. 19-29-07489